Books

A book is a set of sheets of paper, parchment or similar materials that are fastened together to hinge on one side. A single sheet in a book is a sheet, and on either side of a sheet is a page. Writing or pictures can be printed or drawn on the pages of a book. An electronic image is formatted to resemble a book on a computer screen, a smartphone or an electronic reading device is known as an eBook or eBook.

The term “books” can also refer to a corpus of works of literature, or a main division of literature (eg, children’s literature). Library and Information Sciences, a book is called a monograph, to distinguish it from serial periodicals such as magazines, magazines or newspapers. In novels and sometimes other types of books (eg biographies), a book can be divided into several large sections, also called books (Book 1, Book 2, Book 3, etc.). A passionate reader and book collector or book lover is a bibliophile or familiarly, “Bookworm”.

A store where books are bought and sold is a bookstore or library. Books are also sold in department stores, pharmacies and newsagents. Books can also be borrowed from libraries. Google estimated that from 2010, about 130,000,000 different titles were published. In some wealthy countries, sales of printed books declined due to the use of e-books, although e-book sales declined in the first half of 2015.

When writing systems were created in ancient civilizations, a variety of objects, such as stone, clay, tree bark, sheet metal, could be used for writing. The study of these inscriptions constitutes an important part of the history. The study of inscriptions is known as epigraphy. The alphabetical writing emerged in Egypt. The ancient Egyptians would often write on papyrus, a cultivated plant along the Nile. At the beginning, the words were not separated from one another (scriptura continuums) and there was no score. The texts are written from right to left, from left to right, or even alternate lines are read in opposite directions. The technical term for this latter type of writing is “boustrophedon” which literally means “turning beef” to the way a farmer pushes an ox to plow their fields.

A tablet can be defined as a physically robust writing means suitable for occasional writing and transportation. See also the stylus, the instrument used to write on a tablet. The clay tablets were crushed and most pieces of dry clay can be easily transported and impressed with a pencil (possibly moistened). They were used as a means of writing, writing especially in cuneiform, throughout the Bronze Age and well into the Iron Age. The tablets were used by merchants to record sales of products such as bushels of grain and scribes of leaders to record the collection of tax or other income.

Wax tablets are pieces of wood covered with a layer thick enough to record wax impressions of a stylus. Were the normal writing material in schools, accounting, and taking notes. They had the advantage of being reusable: the wax could melt and reform in white. The practice of joining several wax tablets (Roman pugillars) is a possible precursor for modern books (ie, codex). The etymology of the word codex (block of wood) also suggests that it can be developed from wooden wax tablets.